Comparative Study: Biochars from Elaeis Guineensis Biomasses activated with HCl for Optimum Produced Water Treatment
This investigative study was aimed at comparatively evaluating the characteristics of biochars derived from Elaeis guineensis biomasses and activated with HCl for optimum produced water treatment. The biomasses (palm kernel shells, PKS and empty palm bunch, EPB) were prepared and converted to biochars by pyrolysis, and then activated with 0.2M HCl at a temperature of 450oC. The ACs (adsorbents) produced were characterised for pH, bulk density, particle size, iodine numbers, ash and moisture contents. The characteristics of the adsorbents indicate that the iodine numbers ranged from 700.14-1181.48mg/g for EPB particle sizes 75 1180 μm; 525.10-918.93mg/g for PKS particle sizes 150-1180 μm; ash content ranged from 6.20-6.80% for EPB and 2.00-2.80% PKS. Moisture content could get as low as 5.4% for EPB and 1.6% for PKS when warmed in an oven at 105oC for 1 hour. The acid concentration and adsorbent particle sizes were optimized; and based on iodine number, the 300μm particle size for both adsorbents (with pH= 9.8, iodine no.= 962.69, moisture content=5.4% and ash content=6.20% for the EPB, and pH = 7.4, iodine no.=918.93, moisture=6.2% and %ash=2.00 for the PKS) showed good prospects for removing contaminants and was therefore chosen for the treatment. To encourage local content development, it is recommended that activated carbons (Adsorbents) from Elaeis Guineensis biomasses should be mass-produced and used for PW treatment and other purposes. To improve on the adsorption capacity of the PKS any other stronger reagents should be used to activate it since from its bulk density, PKS is a strong material than EPB.